Beats:Beats processors

我们通常的做法是使用 Elasticsearch 的 ingest node 或者 Logstash 来对数据进行清洗。这其中包括删除,添加,丰富,转换等等。但是针对每个 beats 来讲,它们也分别有自己的一组 processors 来可以帮我们处理数据。我们可以访问  Elastic 的官方网站来查看针对 filebeat 的所有 processors。 也就是说,我们可以在配置 beats 的时候并同时配置相应的 processors 来对数据进行处理。每个 processor 能够修改经过它的事件。

如果你想了解 ingest pipeline 是如何清洗这些事件的,请阅读我之前的文章 “Elastic可观测性 - 运用 pipeline 使数据结构化”。在之前文章 “深入理解 Dissect ingest processor” 中,我讲述了 dissect ingest processor 的应用。在今天的文章中,我将使用同样的 beat processor 来说明如何对数据进行格式化。

 

使用  Filebeat 来对数据进行处理

在今天的实验中,我们将使用如下是例子来进行。我们创建一个叫做 sample.log 的文件,其内容如下:

sample.log

"321 - App01 - WebServer is starting"
"321 - App01 - WebServer is up and running"
"321 - App01 - WebServer is scaling 2 pods"
"789 - App02 - Database is will be restarted in 5 minutes"
"789 - App02 - Database is up and running"
"789 - App02 - Database is refreshing tables"

由于 Filebeat 是以换行符来识别每一行的数据的,所以我在文件的最后一行也加上了一个换行符以确保最后一行的数据能被导入。

我们创建一个叫做 filebeat_processors.yml 的 filebeat 配置文件:

filebeat_processors.yml

它的内容如下:

filebeat.inputs:
- type: log
  enabled: true
  paths:
    - /Users/liuxg/data/beatsprocessors/sample.log

processors:
 - dissect:
     tokenizer: '"%{pid|integer} - %{service.name} - %{service.status}"'
     field: "message"
     target_prefix: ""
 - drop_fields:
     fields: ["ecs", "agent", "log", "input", "host"]
 
setup.template.enabled: false
setup.ilm.enabled: false
 
output.elasticsearch:
  hosts: ["localhost:9200"]
  index: "sample"
  bulk_max_size: 1000

请注意你需要依据自己 sample.log 的位置修改上面的 paths 中的路径。

在上面,我们使用了 drop_fields 以及 dissect 两个 processors。当我们使用 dissect 处理器时,有时我们的日志里的空格是不规整的,比如有的是一个,有的是两个空格:

针对这种情况,我们可以使用 trim_values 来除去多余的空格:

我们使用如下的命令来运行 filebeat:

./filebeat -e -c ~/data/beatsprocessors/filebeat_processors.yml 

同样地,我们需要根据自己的配置文件路径修改上面的路径。

运行完上面的命令后,我们可以在 Kibana 中进行查询 sample 索引的内容:

GET sample/_search
{
  "took" : 0,
  "timed_out" : false,
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 1,
    "successful" : 1,
    "skipped" : 0,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "hits" : {
    "total" : {
      "value" : 6,
      "relation" : "eq"
    },
    "max_score" : 1.0,
    "hits" : [
      {
        "_index" : "sample",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "qrBscHYBpymojx8hDWuV",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "@timestamp" : "2020-12-17T11:18:16.540Z",
          "message" : "\"321 - App01 - WebServer is starting\"",
          "service" : {
            "name" : "App01",
            "status" : "WebServer is starting"
          },
          "pid" : 321
        }
      },
      {
        "_index" : "sample",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "q7BscHYBpymojx8hDWuV",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "@timestamp" : "2020-12-17T11:18:16.541Z",
          "pid" : 321,
          "message" : "\"321 - App01 - WebServer is up and running\"",
          "service" : {
            "name" : "App01",
            "status" : "WebServer is up and running"
          }
        }
      },
      {
        "_index" : "sample",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "rLBscHYBpymojx8hDWuV",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "@timestamp" : "2020-12-17T11:18:16.541Z",
          "message" : "\"321 - App01 - WebServer is scaling 2 pods\"",
          "service" : {
            "name" : "App01",
            "status" : "WebServer is scaling 2 pods"
          },
          "pid" : 321
        }
      },
      {
        "_index" : "sample",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "rbBscHYBpymojx8hDWuV",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "@timestamp" : "2020-12-17T11:18:16.541Z",
          "message" : "\"789 - App02 - Database is will be restarted in 5 minutes\"",
          "pid" : 789,
          "service" : {
            "name" : "App02",
            "status" : "Database is will be restarted in 5 minutes"
          }
        }
      },
      {
        "_index" : "sample",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "rrBscHYBpymojx8hDWuV",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "@timestamp" : "2020-12-17T11:18:16.541Z",
          "service" : {
            "name" : "App02",
            "status" : "Database is up and running"
          },
          "pid" : 789,
          "message" : "\"789 - App02 - Database is up and running\""
        }
      },
      {
        "_index" : "sample",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "r7BscHYBpymojx8hDWuV",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "@timestamp" : "2020-12-17T11:18:16.541Z",
          "service" : {
            "status" : "Database is refreshing tables",
            "name" : "App02"
          },
          "message" : "\"789 - App02 - Database is refreshing tables\"",
          "pid" : 789
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}

显然,我们得到了一个结构化的索引。在上面,我们对 pid 还进行了从字符串到整型值的转换。

我们甚至可以重新对一个字段命名,比如:

filebeat_processors.yml

filebeat.inputs:
- type: log
  enabled: true
  paths:
    - /Users/liuxg/data/beatsprocessors/sample.log

processors:
 - drop_fields:
     fields: ["ecs", "agent", "log", "input", "host"]
 - dissect:
     tokenizer: '"%{pid|integer} - %{service.name} - %{service.status}"'
     field: "message"
     target_prefix: "" 
 - rename:
     fields:
        - from: "pid"
          to: "PID"
     ignore_missing: false
     fail_on_error: true    
 
setup.template.enabled: false
setup.ilm.enabled: false
 
output.elasticsearch:
  hosts: ["localhost:9200"]
  index: "sample"
  bulk_max_size: 1000

重新运行上面的配置文件,我们发现:

{
  "took" : 0,
  "timed_out" : false,
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 1,
    "successful" : 1,
    "skipped" : 0,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "hits" : {
    "total" : {
      "value" : 6,
      "relation" : "eq"
    },
    "max_score" : 1.0,
    "hits" : [
      {
        "_index" : "sample",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "UrB5cHYBpymojx8h7oCK",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "@timestamp" : "2020-12-17T11:33:26.114Z",
          "service" : {
            "status" : "WebServer is starting",
            "name" : "App01"
          },
          "message" : "\"321 - App01 - WebServer is starting\"",
          "PID" : 321
        }
      },
   ...

之前的 pid 已经转换为 PID 字段。

我们还可以通过脚本来实现对事件的处理,比如:

filebeat_processors.yml

filebeat.inputs:
- type: log
  enabled: true
  paths:
    - /Users/liuxg/data/beatsprocessors/sample.log

processors:
 - drop_fields:
     fields: ["ecs", "agent", "log", "input", "host"]
 - dissect:
     tokenizer: '"%{pid|integer} - %{service.name} - %{service.status}"'
     field: "message"
     target_prefix: "" 
 - rename:
     fields:
        - from: "pid"
          to: "PID"
     ignore_missing: false
     fail_on_error: true
 - script:
     lang: javascript
     id: my_filter
     params:
        pid: 789
     source: >
       var params = {pid: 0};
       function register(scriptParams) {
          params = scriptParams;
       }
       function process(event) {
          if (event.Get("PID") == params.pid) {
              event.Cancel();
          }
       }        
 
setup.template.enabled: false
setup.ilm.enabled: false
 
output.elasticsearch:
  hosts: ["localhost:9200"]
  index: "sample"
  bulk_max_size: 1000

在上面,当 PID 的值为 789 时,我们将过滤这个事件。重新运行 filebeat:

{
  "took" : 0,
  "timed_out" : false,
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 1,
    "successful" : 1,
    "skipped" : 0,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "hits" : {
    "total" : {
      "value" : 3,
      "relation" : "eq"
    },
    "max_score" : 1.0,
    "hits" : [
      {
        "_index" : "sample",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "5bCBcHYBpymojx8hrIup",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "@timestamp" : "2020-12-17T11:41:53.478Z",
          "PID" : 321,
          "service" : {
            "status" : "WebServer is starting",
            "name" : "App01"
          },
          "message" : "\"321 - App01 - WebServer is starting\""
        }
      },
      {
        "_index" : "sample",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "5rCBcHYBpymojx8hrIup",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "@timestamp" : "2020-12-17T11:41:53.479Z",
          "message" : "\"321 - App01 - WebServer is up and running\"",
          "service" : {
            "status" : "WebServer is up and running",
            "name" : "App01"
          },
          "PID" : 321
        }
      },
      {
        "_index" : "sample",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "57CBcHYBpymojx8hrIup",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "@timestamp" : "2020-12-17T11:41:53.479Z",
          "service" : {
            "status" : "WebServer is scaling 2 pods",
            "name" : "App01"
          },
          "message" : "\"321 - App01 - WebServer is scaling 2 pods\"",
          "PID" : 321
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}

我们发现所有关于 PID 为789 的事件都被过滤掉了。

我们设置可以通过 script 的方法为事件添加一个 tag。当然由于这是一种 Javascript 的脚本编程,我们甚至可以依据一些条件对事件添加不同的 tag。

filebeat_processors.yml

filebeat.inputs:
- type: log
  enabled: true
  paths:
    - /Users/liuxg/data/beatsprocessors/sample.log

processors:
 - drop_fields:
     fields: ["ecs", "agent", "log", "input", "host"]
 - dissect:
     tokenizer: '"%{pid|integer} - %{service.name} - %{service.status}"'
     field: "message"
     target_prefix: "" 
 - rename:
     fields:
        - from: "pid"
          to: "PID"
     ignore_missing: false
     fail_on_error: true
 - script:
     lang: javascript
     id: my_filter
     params:
        pid: 789
     source: >
       var params = {pid: 0};
       function register(scriptParams) {
          params = scriptParams;
       }
       function process(event) {
          if (event.Get("PID") == params.pid) {
              event.Cancel();
          }

          event.Tag("myevent")
       }
 
setup.template.enabled: false
setup.ilm.enabled: false
 
output.elasticsearch:
  hosts: ["localhost:9200"]
  index: "sample"
  bulk_max_size: 1000

在上面,我们添加了 event.Tag("myevent")。重新运行我们可以看到:

    "hits" : [
      {
        "_index" : "sample",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "C7CScHYBpymojx8hkKVy",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "@timestamp" : "2020-12-17T12:00:20.365Z",
          "message" : "\"321 - App01 - WebServer is starting\"",
          "PID" : 321,
          "service" : {
            "name" : "App01",
            "status" : "WebServer is starting"
          },
          "tags" : [
            "myevent"
          ]
        }
      },

在上面,我们可以看到 tags 字段里有一个叫做 myevent 的值。
在今天的介绍中,我就当是抛砖引玉。更多关于 Filebeat 的 Beats processors,请参阅链接 https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/beats/filebeat/current/defining-processors.html#processors

在今天的文章中,我们介绍了一种数据处理的方式。这种数据处理可以在 beats 中进行实现,而不需要在 Elasticsearch 中的 ingest node 中实现。在实际的使用中,你需要依据自己的架构设计来实现不同的设计方案。

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